Rum – is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from the products of the sugar cane in rather complicated way.
The main raw material for the production of the drink is sugar cane, a plant that looks like bamboo, the average height of which is 4 meters.
It has long broad leaves and stems 4-5 centimeters in diameter filled with a substance containing about 15% of sucrose. Most sucrose is contained in the bottom of the stems. That is it, what is cut and milled, then squeezed. The formed liquid is filtered and in the end sugar cane juice is got. The juice should be brought to the consistency of syrup, after which it is partially crystallized. The crystals are separated, refined and then used in the production of sugar, and the remaining syrup solids are used for the production of rum.
The first stage is getting the rum alcohol. For this purpose molasses is taken (black and golden syrup solids of sugar cane) as well as some other products of its processing. All that must ferment. A special method of ferment is used for that: the leftovers from previous fermentations, special sour mash (which is used in the production of whiskey) and butyric acid bacteria are added in a barrel. The result of complex process of fermentation, except for ethanol, is a considerable amount of byproducts: esters, higher alcohols, volatile organic acids, aldehydes, ketones, etc.. Fermentation temperature is strictly controlled because it affects the quality of rum.
After Braga matures it is subjected to a complex multi-step fermentation and distillation. At the same time various herbs (cinnamon vanilla), citrus or other plants are used as additives. There are two types of distillation used. The first one is distillation with the help of a distillation cube (alambic charentais), the same type as in the production of cognac. It allows getting heavy rum. If another machine is used (patent still) light type of rum is produced.
The next stage is long-term aging of rum alcohol in barrels made of wood of different species, depending on the brand and sorts of rum. For example, for the production of Bacardi Carta Blanca American oak barrels are used. In the process of aging the components of rum spit interact with each other and with the substances released from the walls of the barrel.
After the second stage quite strong (60% vol.), sharp on taste and smell alcohol is got. It is diluted to 50%. The other barrels are filled with this mix, and the process of aging is continued between 2 and 8 years old. During this period, thanks to complex chemical reactions inside the barrels, the drink gets its specific taste and aroma. This reduces the maintenance of alcohol and increases the amount of esters. The greatest effect on the quality and taste of rum have esters of oily, caproic and heptanoic acids.
The final step is blending of rum alcohol, that is mixing it with water, sugar syrup and Claire. In this solution acetic esters and butyric acid can also be added. The result is a wonderful strong drink, which conquered a great number of people with its unforgettable flavor and aroma.